A Comprehensive Review On Vaginoplasty

Understanding Vaginoplasty

Vaginoplasty is a surgical procedure that aims to construct or reconstruct a vaginal cavity and mucous membrane. There are quite a number of reasons that could necessitate this kind of surgical intervention, ranging from congenital conditions like vaginal hypoplasia, to cases of gender reassignment.

The Procedure of Vaginoplasty

The specific procedural approach in vaginoplasty could vary based on the specific needs of the patient. However, typically the first step involves creating a space between the rectum and urethra to simulate the location of a biological vagina. Skin grafts or segments of colon are often used to create the lining of the new vagina. The procedure often wraps up with the construction of a vulva complete with labia and clitoris.

Post-Surgery Recovery

The recovery process after a vaginoplasty surgery can take time and requires patience. Pain and discomfort are expected over the first few weeks post-surgery. Patients are generally prescribed oral antibiotics to prevent infection, and painkillers to manage discomfort. In order to prevent the new vaginal cavity from closing up, patients are also generally required to wear a stent for a certain time period.

Criteria for Patients

Not everyone is a viable candidate for a vaginoplasty. A number of physical and psychological conditions must be fulfilled. These include having persistent and well-documented gender dysphoria, being at an age of consent, and having the capacity to make a fully informed decision and to consent for treatment. It’s also necessary that patients have been on hormones for a specified amount of time, and should be in good physical and mental health for the surgery.

Risks and Complications

Like any major surgery, vaginoplasty comes with its own set of risks and complications. Potential patients should be aware of potential short-term and long-term risks. These may include infection, excessive bleeding, skin or tissue necrosis, pain during sexual intercourse, and the possibility of additional revision surgeries.

Costs and Financing

The cost of a vaginoplasty can greatly vary depending on a number of factors. In the US, the price typically ranges from $15,000 to $50,000. Factors influencing the cost of the surgery include surgeon fees, hospital charges, anesthesia fees, and geographical location. Penis revision surgery cost can additionally compound the total cost especially in cases of gender reassignment surgery.


Vaginoplasty is a technically complicated surgical procedure that requires a great deal of expertise on the part of the performing surgeon. It’s essential for potential patients to understand the inherent risks involved and to make the decision to proceed only after fully understanding all possible implications.